Linear Second Order Differential Equations

A linear second order differential equations is written as


When d(x) = 0, the equation is called homogeneous, otherwise it is called nonhomogeneous. To a nonhomogeneous equation


we associate the so called associated homogeneous equation


For the study of these equations we consider the explicit ones given by


where p(x) = b(x)/a(x), q(x) = c(x)/a(x) and g(x) = d(x)/a(x). If p(x), q(x) and g(x) are defined and continuous on the interval I, then the IVP


where tex2html_wrap_inline45 and tex2html_wrap_inline47 are arbitrary numbers, has a unique solution defined on I.

Main result: The general solution to the equation (NH) is given by



tex2html_wrap_inline55 is the general solution to the homogeneous associated equation (H);
tex2html_wrap_inline59 is a particular solution to the equation (NH).

In conclusion, we deduce that in order to solve the nonhomogeneous equation (NH), we need to

Step 1: find the general solution to the homogeneous associated equation (H), say tex2html_wrap_inline55 ;
Step 2: find a particular solution to the equation (NH), say tex2html_wrap_inline59 ;
Step 3: write down the general solution to (NH) as


[Differential Equations] [First Order D.E.] [Second Order D.E.]
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Author: Mohamed Amine Khamsi

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